India's constitution provides that both the Central and the State Governments can bring laws and frame policies on education in India or in simpler words, this is the responsibly of both the respective State Governments as well as the Union Government. Therefore, whereas almost every State has its own Academic Boards and is responsible for establishing State Universities and maintaining them, the Central Government acts as a co-coordinator and helps in determining a uniform standard
Higher education in India has evolved in divergent and distinct streams with each stream monitored by an apex body, indirectly controlled by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. The universities, are mostly funded by the state governments. However, there are 12 important universities called Central universities, which are maintained by the Union Government and because of relatively large funding, they have an economic edge over the others. The engineering colleges and business schools in the country are monitored and accredited by AICTE while medical colleges are monitored and accredited by the MCI. An organisation, NCTE was constituted a couple of years ago to monitor, organise and accredit all the teacher training institutions in the country and this apex body has started making its presence felt. Apart from these, the country has some ace engineering, management and medical institutions which are directly funded by the Union Government.
The school system is based upon 12 years of school (10+2), which includes primary and secondary schooling. Secondary Schools are affiliated with Central or states boards for conduct of examination. Most of the private schools as well as many government schools are affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Edn (CBSE). All the universities and other higher institutions recognize the various 10+2 qualifications from different states as well as national Boards like the CBSE. Though Class XIIth is the entry-level qualification for pursuing higher studies in any field, passing it in itself does not guarantee admission to a particular course. Like for example, some courses specify pre-requisite subjects that the student must have at the qualifying exam (class XIIth); for professional courses other than the pre-requisite subjects a student may also have to sit for an entrance test e.g. IIT-JEE, CPMT etc. Well known colleges specify cut-off marks in class XIIth) for admission in various courses, which may be as high as 85-90% for admission in say B.Sc Hons. (Physics). The cut-off marks or overall entry score can vary between courses in the same university/college, between similar courses in different universities/ colleges and from year to year in the same course. Some courses and some universities/institutions/colleges are in greater demand than others and therefore gaining entry into them is correspondingly more tough.....continued...