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    Media In India


    Mass media in India


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    Madras (Chennai)

    The Madras Courier was started in 1785 in the southern stronghold of Madras , which is now called Chennai. Richard Johnson , its founder, was a government printer. Madras got its second newspaper when, in 1791 , Hugh Boyd, who was the editor of the Courier quit and founded the Hurkaru . Tragically for the paper, it ceased publication when Boyd passed away within a year of its founding.

    It was only in 1795 that competitors to the Courier emerged with the founding of the Madras Gazette followed by the India Herald . The latter was an "unauthorised" publication, which led to the deportation of its founder Humphreys. The Madras Courier was designated the purveyor of official information in the Presidency.

    In 1878, The Hindu was founded, and played a vital role in promoting the cause of Indian independence from the colonial yoke. It's founder, Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, was a lawyer, and his son, K Srinivasan assumed editorship of this pioneering newspaper during for the first half of the 20th century. Today this paper enjoys the highest circulation in South India, and is among the top five nationally.


    Bombay , now Mumbai, surprisingly was a late starter - The Bombay Herald came into existence in 1789 . Significantly, a year later a paper called the Courier started carrying advertisements in Gujarati .

    The first media merger of sorts: The Bombay Gazette , which was started in 1791 , merged with the Bombay Herald the following year. Like the Madras Courier , this new entity was recognised as the publication to carry "official notifications and advertisements".

    'A Chronicle of Media and the State', by Jeebesh Bagchi in the Sarai Reader 2001 is a handy timeline on the role of the state in the development of media in India for more than a century.

    Bagchi divides the timeline into three 'ages'. The Age of Formulation, which starts with the Indian Telegraph Act in 1885 and ends with the Report of the Sub-Committee on Communication, National Planning Committee in 1948 .

    Post colonial journalism

    The Age of Consolidation that follows stretches from 1951 , with the extension of the Indian Telegraph Act to the whole of India and ends with the promulgation of the "Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act" in 1985 . The current age is the Age of Uncertainty, which began in 1989 with the introduction of the Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) Bill.

    Two News Agencies

    Press Trust of India (PTI) and United News of India (UNI) are the two primary Indian news agencies. The former was formed after the it took over the operations of the Associated Press of India and the Indian operations of Reuters soon after independence on August 27 , 1947 . PTI is a non-profit cooperative of the Indian newspapers.

    UNI began its operations on March 21 , 1961 , though it was registered as a company in 1959 itself.